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13 September 2019

Interferon in Viral Infection|ICDS Supervisor Exam Kerala PSC bibimohanan.com

Interferon in Viral Infection|ICDS Supervisor Exam Kerala PSC bibimohanan.com



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ICDS Supervisor Exam Kerala PSC


Interferon in Viral Infection


Interferon


 As viruses depend on their host cell to produce many function of viral multiplication. 


So, it is difficult to inhibit viral multiplication without affecting host cell itself. 

One way by which infected host cell counter viral infection is with a family of cytokines called interferon.



 Interferons are a class of similar antiviral protein produces by certain animal cells such as lymphocytes & macrophages after viral stimulation.

 One of principal function of interferon is to interfere with viral multiplication. 

All interferon are small protein with weight between 15000-30000 Daltons. 

They are quiet stable at low pH & fairly resistant to heat. 


There are three types α, β, ϒ. 

ϒ-interferon is produced by lymphocytes. 

It includes neutrophils and macrophages to kill bacteria. 



ϒ Interferon causes macrophages to produce nitric oxide which kills bacteria as well as tumor cell by inhibiting ATP production.

 Antiviral Action of Interferon (α &β)


Viral genome enters into host cell infecting virus replicates into new viruses. 


Mean while infecting virus also induces host cell to produce interferon mRNA which is translated into interferon α and interferon β. 




Interferon released by virus infect host cell , bind to plasma membrane receptors on uninfected neighboring host cell inducing cell to synthesize antiviral protein.


 New viruses released by viruses infect host cell infect the neighboring cell .

Antiviral protein degrade viral genome & inhibits protein synthesis and interfere with viral replication. 

An interesting feature of interferon is that, they are host cell specific, not virus specific. 

Interferon produced by human cell protect human cell but produces little antiviral activity for cells of other species i.e. mice or chicks. 



However interferon of a species is active against a number of different viruses. 

Mode of action of interferons Interferons are produced in the nucleus and transported through cytoplasm out of the cell and enter the surrounding cells. 

There are three types of interferons 

Translation blockers, Transcription blockers and replication blockers.

 So when they enter the surrounding cells they block the above three cell processes and hence do not allow the viruses to replicate in the surrounding nearby cells.


Interferons can also be used for long term interferon therapy for viral diseases. 



Antibodies 

Antibodies are produced by the plasma proteins and travel through blood to the target and attaches to the antigen and stops its activity.

 Antibodies are composed of variable and constant fragments. Variable fragments of antibodies are different for each kind of antigen.


Interferons VS Antibodies




Interferons:                                                              



1. They are generalized in their action e.g. interferons for NDV virus also block other viruses. 

2. Interferon is a part of the infected cell.

3. They are produced in small amounts.

4. They are chemical mediators.
5. Present in the intercellular spaces.

6. They are classified as α, β and γ.
7. They do not bind to the antigen but enter the surrounding cells.

8. Interferons block genetic codes.



Antibodies: 



1. They are highly specific in their action. E.g. NDV antibody controls NDV virus only. 

2. Antibodies are formed by plasma cells. 

3. They are produced in large numbers.  

4. They are Igs and are “Y” shaped.  

5. Present in the whole body, blood, tissue, mucous membrane.  

6. They are classified as IgG, IgD, IgM, IgE, and IgA. 

7.  They do not enter the cell but bind the antigen.

 8.  Blocks the antigen synthesis.



Also Read;

Morphology of Bacteria

Anatomy of Bacteria

Vaccination -Types


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