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5 September 2019

Functional Anatomy of Bacteria- Microbiology|ICDS Supervisor Kerala PSC

Functional Anatomy of Bacteria- Microbiology|ICDS Supervisor Kerala PSC

Functional Anatomy of Bacteria:

 Brief functions: 

#1 Cell Wall: 

acts as an antigen, provide protection and rigidity x Cell membrane: serve as a barrier through which materials enter and exit the cell.

#2 Capsule: 

acts as an antigen, has feeding importance, sticking features and cause disease 

#3 Mesosome: 

role in metabolism 

#4 Fimbriae: 

helps in motility, jerky movement, has sticking feature and acts as an antigen 

#5 Pilus: 

helps in reproduction(conjugation) x Ribosomes: protein formation 

#6 Nucleoid:

 transcription and translation 

#7 Chromosomes: 

hereditary material 

#8 Droplets: 

helpful in storage

 #9 Flagella: 

act as an antigen and helps in motility 

#10 Plasmid:

 has special features of resistance and infection Appendages external to bacteria Fimbriae 

-Made up of fimbrine protein and range hundreds in number.

 - Helps in motility and jerky movement 

-Acts as a poor antigen thus helps in recognition 

-Used for attachments and formation of biofilms 

   e.g. fimbriae of bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae helps to colonize in mucous membrane and fimbriae of E.coli helps to adhere in small intestine 

-Acts as a disease causing agents after attachment 

- Cause ascending infection e.g. in excretory system Pilli

 -They are longer then fimbriae and range in number from 1 to 10. 

-They are made up of pillin protein. Its function is reproduction i.e. sexual reproduction in bacteria known as conjugation. (F+ ,the bacteria which give genetic material and F- , which receive). 

The rest of the functions are same as fimbriae. Glycocalyx (capsule) Prokaryotic cell sometimes secrete a substance outside the cell wall known as glycocalax.

 - If the substance is organized and is firmly attached to the cell wall, the glycocalyx is described as a capsule. 

- If the substance is unorganized and only loosely attached to the cell wall, the glycocalyx is described as a slime layer.

 - If a number of bacteria are present close together and the capsule of a single cell cannot identified the layer formed is known as saline layer. 

- If glycocalyx is removed from cell wall or if it is not present at all then a thin layer is present known as “S” layer. 

- If a colony forms LPS capsule the appearance of colony will be smooth. 

- If a colony forgets to form LPS capsule the colony will b rough. 

- If protein capsule is present in colony then appearance will be rough 

- If protein capsule absent then the appearance will be smooth. Function 

- Protection because of slimy nature 

- Protection against immune system so they can cause disease 

- Capsule can serve as a food source

 e.g. Streptococcus mutants. 

- Used for attachment x Serve as a good antigen. 


Flagella are long filamentous appendages that propel bacteria

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