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5 September 2019

Recombinant DNA Technology in Genetic Engineering Biotechnology|ICDS Supervisor Exam Kerala PSC

Genetic Engineering Biotechnology|ICDS Supervisor Exam Kerala PSC

Genetic Engineering Biotechnology
Genetic Engineering Biotechnology

Genetic Engineering -Biotechnology

 It is the use of microorganism, cell or cell components to make products. 

Microbes have been used in commercial production of food, vaccine, antibiotics and vitamins for years. 

Recombinant DNA technology Microorganisms as well as entire plants are used to produce chemicals which that specific organism can produce naturally. 

This was made possible by inserting gene into cell by recombinant DNA technology, sometimes called as genetic engineering. 

The development of recombinant DNA technology is expanding the practical application of biotechnology beyond imagination, As recombination of DNA occurs naturally in microbes, in 1970s and 1980s scientist developed artificial technology for making recombinant DNA. 

A gene from vertebrate animal including humans can be inserted into the DNA of bacterium or a gene from virus can be inserted into yeast. 

Then the gene is expressed in recipient which code for a commercially useful product. 

A bacteria with a gene for human insulin are now being used to produce insulin for treating diabetes. 

Vaccine for hepatitis B is being made by yeast carrying a gene for parts of hepatitis virus. 

Viral protein coats are produced by recombinant DNA technology from yeast. 

Scientist hope that such approach may prove useful in producing vaccine against other infectious agents thus eliminating the need to use whole organism as in conventional vaccines.

Procedure of Recombinant DNA Technology 

1. A vector such as plasmid is isolated from the bacterium.

 2. DNA containing the gene of interest is cleaved into fragments by enzyme called restriction endonuclease.

 3. Gene is inserted into the plasmid. 

4. Plasmid is taken up by the cell to make component cell. 

5. Cell with gene of interest can be cloned. 

6. Now there are two possibilities. 

- Goal is to make copies of gene, the copies of gene will be harvested 

    e.g. a gene of interest can be inserted into a bacteria which can clean up different ponds or lakes or they can be introduced in plants to develop resistance against pests.

- Goal is to make protein product of gene. the produced protein are harvested from bacterial biomass 

  e.g. amylase, cellulose and other such enzymes prepare fabrics for manufacturing clothes and human growth hormone which treats shunted growth.

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