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4 September 2019

Vaccination, Types of Vaccination|ICDS Supervisor Exam Kerala PSC


Vaccination, Types of Vaccination|ICDS Supervisor Exam Kerala PSC

Vaccination, Types of Vaccination
Vaccination, Types of Vaccination


Vaccination




 A vaccine is a suspension of organisms or fractions of organisms that is used to induce immunity. 



In 1798 Edward Jenner inoculated people with cowpox in an attempt to prevent smallpox.

 Cowpox is a mild disease that causes lesions on cows’ udders; dairymaids’ hands often became infected during milking and after this they become immune to Small pox. 

To honor Jenner’s work, the term vaccination (from the Latin vacca, meaning cow) was coined. 



Two centuries later, the disease of smallpox has been eliminated worldwide by vaccination, and two other viral diseases, measles and polio, are also targeted for elimination. 

Principles and Effects of Vaccination In a vaccination against small pox The injection/by skin scratches, provoked a primary immune response in the recipients, leading to the formation of antibodies and long-term memory cells.

 Later, when the recipient encountered the smallpox virus, the memory cells were stimulated, producing a rapid, intense secondary immune response. 




Many communicable diseases can be controlled by behavioral and environmental methods. For example, proper sanitation can prevent
the spread of cholera, and the use of condoms can slow the spread of sexually transmitted infections.


 Viral diseases, however, often cannot be effectively treated once contracted.

 Therefore, vaccination is frequently the only feasible method of controlling viral disease. 



Types of Vaccines 


There are now several basic types of vaccine.

 Some of the newer vaccines take full advantage of knowledge and technology developed in recent years.

 Live Attenuated Vaccines 



In this type of vaccine Live Attenuated viruses are used to develop immunity against a specific disease. 

In the autumn of 1881 Louis Pasteur used the culture that had been left on the bench during the summer to inoculate some chickens to cause cases of chicken cholera, the birds remained healthy. 

A fresh culture of the pathogen was then used to inoculate these birds, but, surprisingly, they remained healthy. 

Pasteur concluded that the culture left on the bench that summer had been weakened and was now unable to cause disease—but had rendered the chickens immune. 

Live vaccines more closely mimic an actual infection. 

Lifelong immunity, especially in the case of viruses, is often achieved without booster immunizations, this long-term effectiveness probably occurs because the attenuated viruses replicate in the body, increasing the original dose and acting as a series of secondary (booster) immunizations.


 Inactivated Killed Vaccines 


Inactivated killed vaccines use microbes that have been killed, usually by formalin or phenol. Inactivated virus vaccines used in humans include those against rabies, influenza and polio.

 Generally speaking, these vaccines are considered safer than live vaccines. 



Compared to live attenuated vaccines, these inactivated vaccines often require repeated booster doses.

 They also induce a mostly humoral antibody immunity, which makes them less effective than attenuated vaccines in inducing cellular immunity.

Conjugated Vaccines 




Conjugated vaccines have been developed in recent years to deal with the poor immune response of children to vaccines based on capsular polysaccharides.

 polysaccharides are T-independent antigens; children’s immune systems do not respond well to these antigens until the age of 15 to 24 months. 

Therefore, the polysaccharides are combined with proteins such as diphtheria or tetanus toxoid; this approach has led to the very successful vaccine for Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), which gives significant protection even at 2 months.


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