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21 January 2024

Principles of Development|ICDS Supervisor Kerala Study Materials

 

Principles of Development|ICDS Supervisor Kerala Study Materials


Principles of Development



Principles of Development

In this section, we shall focus on the different principles associated with development

and learning.

Principle of Change

As we know, human beings always think of moving ahead. Similarly, the nature and

scope of development involved also changes with time. 


What a person was at age 5, will not be same at age 20. The person will have changed in many respects such as physical growth, understanding and maturation. 

The process of development in the person also changes correspondingly.


Principle of Significance of Early Development


A universally accepted idea is that early development is more important and critical

than later development. Early development involves the experiences a child has

during his or her young age. Healthy experiences will lead to healthy development

while negative experiences may lead to an unhealthy development.


 Positive experiences can be provided by parents through love and caring. There are some capabilities, which develop best at some specific time of life, such as brain development,

language development and so on. Parental love and care promote the mental health of a child and the child becomes less prone to behavioural problems at a later age.


Principle of Predictability


Development principles are predictable. We can know the particular age at which children

will learn to walk, speak and so on. 


These predations help to decide many things for children. But, it is important to note that this principle does not mean that all children will develop in same way.


 There may be differences in the way each child develops because every child has a unique personality, which is developed on the basis of his or her socio-cultural context.

Principle of Interaction between Heredity and Environment 

Development of child is a process that cannot be defined wholly based either on heredity

or environment. Both have to play an important role in child development. 

There are arguments in favour of both. However, most of the psychologists agree that an

interplay of these two factors leads to development. 


Where heredity decides or set some limits on development (mostly physical), environmental influences complete the developmental process (qualitative). Environment influences development qualitative, 

as it provides space for multi-dimensional development through interaction with family,

peer, society and so on. 

Principle of Individual Differences

One the most important principle of development is that it involves individual differences.

There is no fixed rate of development. That all children will learn to walk is

universal, but the time at which each child takes his or her first step may vary. This

difference may be attributed to heredity and environmental factors. It is important to

understand that these differences to provide better opportunities for development.


Principle of Expectations


There are some expectations from a child at each stage of development. For example

during infancy, children learn to control physical actions; as toddlers, they learn to correlate

the different concepts they have learnt; at school, they learn to interact with

peer group and increase their social context. Therefore, there are some expectations

associated with different stages of development.


Principle of Association of Maturation and Learning


Biological growth and development is known as maturation. Biological change involves

changes in the brain and the nervous system, which provide new abilities to a child.

Development proceeds from simple to complex. In the beginning, a child learns through

concrete objects and gradually moves to abstract thinking. This transition happens

because of maturation.


Principle of Continuation


Development is a continuous process. Children keep adding new skills to their abilities

on the basis of their experiences. Almost all children follow a similar pattern in the

sequence of acquisition of their skills. 


This sequence continues to move and add new knowledge and skills and help children to learn from their experiences. There is no time when we do not learn. Learning is directly related to development, which in turn, is a process that stops only with the life of a person.


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