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2 September 2019

Microbiology and Branches of Microbiology|ICDS Supervisor Exam Kerala PSC

Microbiology and Branches of Microbiology|ICDS Supervisor Exam Kerala PSC

microbiology-branches of microbiology



Microbiology 

The word microbiology is derived from the Greek word, 



MICRO means small
 BIOS means life and 
LOGIA means study.

Microbiology is the study of microscopic organisms either unicellular, multicellular or acellular. 




Microbiology include disciplines of Virology, mycology and bacteriology etc.

  •  Eukaryotic microorganisms exhibit cell organelles and include fungi, protists and algae.

  • Prokaryotic microorganisms are conventionally classified as lacking organelles and include Eubacteria, Archaebacteria. 

  • Microbiologist traditionally relayed on culture, staining and microscopy. However, if only 1 percent of microbes present in the environment are culture able. Microbiologist often relay on extraction or detection of nucleic acid either DNA or RNA. 

  •  Viruses are not always classified as organisms as they have been identified either as very simple microorganisms or very complex molecules.

  • Prions are never considered microorganisms and they have been investigated by virologist as the clinical effects traced to them were originally presumed due to chronic viral infection and virologist identified them as infectious proteins, e.g. mad cow disease in cattle and Scrapie disease in sheep. 

  • Branches of Microbiology: Two main branches


1. Pure microbiology 

2. Applied microbiology



1.Pure microbiology: 


  •  Bacteriology: study of bacteria 
  • Mycology: study of fungi 
  • Phycology: study of algae 
  • Immunology: study of immune system 
  •  Virology: study of viruses 
  • Microbial physiology: study of microbial cell function. It includes the study of microbial growth, metabolism and cell function. 
  •  Microbial cytology: study of microscopic and sub-microscopic details of organisms. 
  • Microbial genetics: study of organization and regulation of genes in microbes in relation to their cellular function. 

2.Applied microbiology: 



  • Veterinary microbiology: study of microbes of veterinary importance such as probiotics and pathogens which are related to veterinary medicine.
  •  Pharmaceutical microbiology: study of microorganisms which are related to the production of antibiotics, enzymes, vitamins, biologics and other pharmaceutical products and those microbes which cause pharmaceutical contamination and spoilage.
  • Microbial biotechnology: manipulation of microorganisms at genetics and molecular level to generate useful products e.g. generation of insulin from E. coli. 
  •  Food microbiology: study of microorganism causing food spoilage and food borne illness. It is all the use of microbes to produce food


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