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24 January 2020

Kerala History-class 1-KAS-Kerala Administrative Services Exam

Kerala History-class 1-KAS-Kerala Administrative Services Exam





Kerala History

History Of Kerala

The term Kerala was first epigraphical recorded as Ketalaputo (Cheras) in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription by emperor Ashoka of Magadha.

 It was mentioned as one of four independent kingdoms in southern India during Ashoka's time, the others being the Cholas, Pandyas and Satyaputras. 

The Cheras transformed Kerala into an international trade centre by establishing trade relations across the Arabian Sea with all major Mediterranean and Red Sea ports as well those of the Far East. 

The early Cheras collapsed after repeated attacks from the neighboring Cholas and Rashtrakutas.

During the early middle ages, Namboodiri Brahmin immigrants arrived in Kerala and shaped the society on the lines of the caste system. 


In the 8th century, Adi Shankara was born at Kalady in central Kerala.


 He traveled extensively across the Indian subcontinent founding institutions of the widely influential philosophy of Advaita Vedanta. 

The Cheras regained control over Kerala in the 9th century until the kingdom was dissolved in the 12th century, after which small autonomous chiefdoms, most notably Venadu, arose.


Archaeological studies have identified many Mesolithic, Neolithic and Megalithic sites in Kerala.


These findings have been classified into Laterite rock-cut caves (Chenkallara), Hood stones (Kudakkallu), Hat stones (Toppikallu), Dolmenoid cists (Kalvrtham), Urn burials (Nannangadi) and Menhirs (Pulachikallu).


kudakkallu

The studies point to the indigenous development of the ancient Kerala society and its culture beginning from the Paleolithic age, and its continuity through Mesolithic, Neolithic and Megalithic ages.

 However, foreign cultural contacts have assisted this cultural formation.


 The studies suggest possible relationship with Indus Valley Civilization during the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age.

Archaeological findings include dolmens of the Neolithic era in the Marayur area. 

They are locally known as "muniyara", derived from muni (hermit or sage) and ara (dolmen).

 Rock engravings in the Edakkal Caves in Wayanad are thought to date from the early to late Neolithic eras around 5000 BCE.


Edakkal Caves


 Historian M. R. Raghava Varier of the Kerala state archaeology department identified a sign of “a man with jar cup” in the engravings, which is the most distinct motif of the Indus valley civilisation.


Jar Cup

In 1498, Vasco Da Gama established a sea route to Kerala and raised Portuguese settlements, which marked the beginning of the colonial era of Kerala.

European trading interests of the Dutch, French and the British East India companies took centre stage during the colonial wars in India.

After the Dutch were defeated by Travancore king Marthanda Varma, the British crown gained control over Kerala by creating the princely state of Travancore until India was declared independent in 1947.

The state of Kerala was created in 1956 from the former state of Travancore-Cochin, the Malabar district of Madras State, and the Kasaragod taluk of Dakshina Kannada

Read Also;



Early medieval History of Kerala


Kerala History-class 1







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1 comment:

  1. Mam.. thank you... expecting more kas and ldc classes...

    ReplyDelete

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