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25 January 2020

Chera-Chola-Pandya-Classical Period Kerala History-class 3-KAS-Kerala Administrative Services Exam

Chera-Chola-Pandya-Classical Period Kerala History-class 3-KAS-Kerala Administrative Services Exam

Classical Period Kerala History

Muziris in the Tabula Peutingeriana, an itinerarium showing the road network in the Roman Empire.

Early ruling dynasties in Kerala

Chera-Chola-Pandya Kingdoms

Kerala's dominant rulers of the early historic period were the Cheras, a Tamil dynasty with its headquarters located in Vanchi.

The location of Vanchi is generally considered near the ancient port city of Muziris in Kerala.

 However, Karur in modern Tamil Nadu is also pointed out as the location of the capital city of Cheras.

Another view suggests the reign of Cheras from multiple capitals.

 The Chera kingdom consisted of a major part of modern Kerala and Kongunadu which comprises western districts of modern Tamil Nadu like Coimbatore and Salem.

 Old Tamil works such as Patiṟṟuppattu, Patiṉeṇmēlkaṇakku and Silappatikaram are important sources that describe the Cheras from the early centuries CE.

Together with the Cholas and Pandyas the Cheras formed the Tamil triumvirate of the mūvēntar (Three Crowned Kings).

The Cheras ruled the western Malabar Coast, the Cholas ruled in the eastern Coromandel Coast and the Pandyas in the south-central peninsula.


The Cheras were mentioned as Ketalaputo (Keralaputra) on an inscribed edict of emperor Ashoka of the Magadha Empire in the 3rd century BCE, as Cerobothra by the Greek Periplus of the Erythraean Sea and as Celebothras in the Roman encyclopedia Natural History by Pliny the Elder.

The Mushika kingdom existed in northern Kerala, while the Ays ruled south of the Chera kingdom.

Three Crowned rulers-Moovendhar

The Three Crowned rulers, or the Three Glorified by Heaven, or World of the Three, primarily known as Moovendhar, refers to the triumvirate of Chera, Chola and Pandya who dominated the politics of the ancient Tamil country, Tamilakam, from their three Nadu (countries) of Chola Nadu, Pandya Nadu (present day Madurai and Tirunelveli) and Chera Nadu (present day Karur in Tamil Nadu and Kerala) in southern India.

 They signalled a time of integration and political identity for the Tamil people.

 They would frequently wage war against one another under a period of instability until the Imperial period of Rajaraja I who united Tamilakam under one leadership.

Read Also;

Chera-Chola-Pandya-Classical Period Kerala History

Early medieval History of Kerala

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