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28 January 2020

Europeans in Kerala-Kerala History -KAS-Kerala Administrative services

Europeans in Kerala-Kerala History -KAS-Kerala Administrative services


Europeans in Kerala-Kerala History

Colonial period-Kerala History


Vasco da Gama landing in Kerala

Vasco da Gama


The maritime spice trade monopoly in the Indian Ocean stayed with the Arabs during the High and Late Middle Ages. 

However, the dominance of Middle East traders was challenged in the European Age of Discovery. 

After Vasco Da Gama's arrival in Kappad Kozhikode in 1498, the Portuguese began to dominate eastern shipping and the spice-trade in particular.



The path Vasco da Gama took to reach India (black line)



The path Vasco da Gama took to reach India (black line)

Portuguese period-Kerala History

portuguese in kerala

The Samoothiri Maharaja of Kozhikode permitted the Portuguese to trade with his subjects. 


Their trade in Kozhikode prospered with the establishment of a factory and fort in his territory.

 However, Portuguese attacks on Arab properties in his jurisdiction provoked the Samoothiri and finally led to conflict. 

The Portuguese took advantage of the rivalry between the Samoothiri and Rajah of Kochi—they allied with Kochi and when 

Francisco de Almeida was appointed Viceroy of Portuguese India in 1505, he established his headquarters at Kochi. 


Francisco-de-Almeida

During his reign, the Portuguese managed to dominate relations with Kochi and established a number of fortresses along the Malabar Coast.

Nonetheless, the Portuguese suffered severe setbacks due to attacks by Samoothiri Maharaja's forces, especially naval attacks under the leadership of admirals of Kozhikode known as Kunjali Marakkars, which compelled them to seek a treaty. 
kunjali-marakkar


The Portuguese Cemetery, Kollam (after the invasion of Dutch, it became Dutch Cemetery) of Tangasseri in Kollam city was constructed in around 1519 as part of the Portuguese invasion in the city. 



Portuguese Cemetery/Dutch Cemetery Kollam

Buckingham Canal (a small canal between Tangasseri Lighthouse and the cemetery) is situated very close to the Portuguese Cemetery.

 A group of pirates known as the Pirates of Tangasseri formerly lived at the Cemetery.

 The remnants of St. Thomas Fort and Portuguese Cemetery still exist at Tangasseri.

French Region in Kerala


French East India Company constructed a fort on the site of Mahé in 1724, in accordance with an accord concluded between André Mollandin and Raja Vazhunnavar of Badagara three years earlier.


 In 1741, Mahé de La Bourdonnais retook the town after a period of occupation by the Marathas.

In 1761 the British captured Mahé, India, and the settlement was handed over to the Rajah of Kadathanadu.


 The British restored Mahé, India to the French as a part of the 1763 Treaty of Paris. In 1779, the Anglo-French war broke out, resulting in the French loss of Mahé, India. 

In 1783, the British agreed to restore to the French their settlements in India, and Mahé, India was handed over to the French in 1785

Dutch period - Kerala History


Dutch commander De Lannoy surrenders to Marthanda Varma at the Battle of Colachel (1741). 

Depiction at Padmanabhapuram Palace.


PadmanabhaPuram palace


The weakened Portuguese were ousted by the Dutch East India Company, who took advantage of continuing conflicts between Kozhikode and Kochi to gain control of the trade. 

The Dutch Malabar (1661-1795) in turn were weakened by their constant battles with Marthanda Varma of the Travancore Royal Family, and were defeated at the Battle of Colachel in 1741, resulting in the complete eclipse of Dutch power in Malabar. 

The Treaty of Mavelikkara was signed by the Dutch and Travancore in 1753, according to which the Dutch were compelled to detach from all political involvements in the region. 


In the meantime, Marthanda Varma annexed many smaller northern kingdoms through military conquests, resulting in the rise of Travancore to a position of preeminence in Kerala.

 Hyder Ali of Mysore conquered northern Kerala in the 18th century, capturing Kozhikode in 1766.

British period-  Kerala History


Captured Mappila prisoners of 1921 revolt, taken after a battle with British troops.

Hyder Ali and his successor, Tipu Sultan, came into conflict with the British, leading to the four Anglo-Mysore wars fought across southern India in the latter half of the 18th century. 

Tipu Sultan ceded Malabar District to the British in 1792, and South Kanara, which included present-day Kasargod District, in 1799. 

The British concluded treaties of subsidiary alliance with the rulers of Cochin (1791) and Travancore (1795), and these became princely states of British India, maintaining local autonomy in return for a fixed annual tribute to the British. 

Malabar and South Kanara districts were part of British India's Madras Presidency.

Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja (Kerul Varma Psyche Rajah, Coyote Rajah) (3 January 1753 – 30 November 1805) was the Prince Regent and the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Kottayam in Malabar, India between 1774 and 1805. 


Pazhassiraja


He led the Pychy Rebellion (Wynand Insurrection, Coyote War) against the English East India Company. He is popularly known as Kerala Simham (Lion of Kerala).


Organised expressions of discontent with British rule were not uncommon in Kerala. 

Uprisings of note include the rebellion by Pazhassi Raja, Velu Thampi Dalawa and the Punnapra-Vayalar revolt of 1946. 

In 1919, consequent to their victory in World War I, the British abolished the Islamic Caliphate and dismembered the Ottoman Empire. 

This resulted in protests against the British by Muslims of the Indian sub-continent known as the Khilafat Movement, which was supported by Mahatma Gandhi in order to draw the Muslims into the mainstream national independence movement. 

In 1921, the Khilafat Movement in Malabar culminated in widespread riots against the British government and Hindu population in what is now known as the Moplah rebellion.


 Kerala also witnessed several social reforms movements directed at the eradication of social evils such as untouchability among the Hindus, pioneered by reformists like Srinarayana guru and Chattambiswami among others. 

The non-violent and largely peaceful Vaikom Satyagraha of 1924 was instrumental in securing entry to the public roads adjacent to the Vaikom temple for people belonging to untouchable castes.

 In 1936, Sree Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma, the ruler of Travancore, issued the Temple Entry Proclamation, declaring the temples of his kingdom open to all Hindu worshipers, irrespective of caste.




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